In writing an acceptable academic paper, a researcher is to consider four questions:

1) What epistemology– theory of knowledge embedded in the theoretical perspective-informs the research (e.g. objectivism, subjectivism, etc.)?

2) What theoretical perspective-philosophical stance-lies behind the methodology in question (e.g. positivism and postpositivist, interpretivism critical theory etc.)?

3) What methodology– strategy or plan of action that links methods to outcomes-governs choices and the use of methods (e.g. experimental research, survey research, ethnography, etc.)?

4) What methods– techniques and procedures do we propose to use (e.g. focus group, questionnaire, interviews etc.)?

These four posers can be amended into 3 broad questions central to the design of research pg. 5

To write for publication in international journals, periodicals or even a Thesis (dissertation) the first step is to establish the issue or concern leading to the writing or research by conveying information about the research problem. Therefore, in writing the introduction which is the opening part of any writing one must state in clear terms the research problem.

Please note that the research problem is different from the research questions.

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